Another declassified material from my acrhives
Almaz S-300 (SA-10 'Grumble') family of low- to high-altitude
surface-to-air missile systems
The Russian `Almaz' Scientific Industrial Corporation S-300 designated (US/NATO codenamed SA-10 `Grumble') missile system began development in 1967.
It was specifically designed as a semi-mobile all-weather strategic air defence system to replace the obsolete S-25 Berkut (US/NATO codenamed SA-1 `Guild') missile network around Moscow and for use against low-altitude air breathing threats such as cruise missiles.
The system development was assigned to Boris V Bunkin, the Almaz general designer, whilst development of the accompanying missile was allocated to the `Fakel MKB' (formerly the `Grushin') missile design bureau.
By late 1996, there were 2,075 SA-10 launchers in service with the PVO. These had not only replaced the SA-1 system but were also replacing the S-75 (US/NATO codenamed SA-2 `Guideline') and S-125 (US/NATO codenamed SA-3 `Goa') static SAM systems.
Over the years a number of S-300 developments have been made. These include the following:
S-300P (US/NATO codenamed SA-10a `Grumble')
The S-300P system (P = podvizhnyi, Russian for mobile) used towed semi-trailer erector-launchers with four missiles mounted in pairs and erected towards the semi-trailers front for launching. A set of outriggers at the front of the semi-trailer were erected to stabilise the platform before a launch could occur. Emplacement time was stated to be over 30 minutes.
The engagement radar used was the 30N6 (NATO codenamed `Flap Lid') I/J-band phased-array set. The usual battery configuration was three semi-trailer launchers and a single `Flap Lid' radar. The battery could simultaneously engage up to a maximum of three targets with six missiles under command guidance.
The S-300P units, which entered service in 1980, were integrated into the national Russian PVO air defence network fixed command and control system. Co-ordination of multiple static S-300P brigades is undertaken by the Proton NPO Universal-1E C3I system. However, due to inadequate range problems the S-300P system was rapidly upgraded to a later longer range missile standard and supplemented by more modern mobile versions.
S-300PM (US/NATO codenamed SA-10b `Grumble')
This was the standard production version and accepted for operational service around 1982. Designated by the Russians S-300PM (M = modifikatsionniy, Russian for modified) this utilised the definitive 5P85T semi-trailer launcher with KRAZ-260 (6 ÃƒÆ’Ã†â€™ÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã¢â‚¬Â 6) heavy truck tractors. The 5P85T erects its four paired missile container-launchers to the rear of the semi-trailer thus avoiding the need to uncouple the tractor unit, hence considerably reducing the time needed to deploy the system. The 5P85T launchers remain an option for use with the later S-300PMU and S-300PMU-1 systems.
Two new missiles were developed for the S-300PM system, the Fakel 5V55R with a 133 kg conventional HE-fragmentation warhead and the 5V55V with a nuclear warhead. Missile guidance was changed to the Track-Via-Missile (TVM) radar type using a modified `Flap Lid' engagement radar for control. An uprated rocket motor was used to increase the effective missile engagement range to a more acceptable 75,000 m.
S-300PMU (US/NATO codenamed SA-10c `Grumble')
The S-300PMU (U = usovershstvovanniy or `improved') system entered service in 1985 and was the third generation version of the S-300 family. It was specifically designed to improve system mobility and is basically the key elements of the S-300 system repackaged to fit on modified MAZ-543 (8 ÃƒÆ’Ã†â€™ÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã¢â‚¬Â
cross-country truck chassis. By employing these vehicles, emplacement time on an unsurveyed site is reduced to about five minutes.
The firing battery is preceded into its launch area by a 1T12-2M survey vehicle which prepares the site for battery occupation. The self-propelled 5P85 series launchers are accompanied by the self-propelled 30N6 engagement radar, which is also mounted on a MAZ-543 chassis derivative. Supporting elements for the battery include 5T58 missile transport vehicles and 22T6 missile reloading vehicles. A full range of training facilities can also be provided.
The engagement radar has been modified for the S-300PMU system to permit it to control enlarged batteries of up to 12 launcher vehicles. This has increased the simultaneous engagement capability to six targets with up to two missiles per target allowed. As a result the S-300PMU brigade was reorganised to have six batteries, each with two-three launcher vehicles and an engagement radar. The missile used is the Fakel 5V55RUD (UD = usovershstvovanaya dainsot, Russian for improved range) which had further rocket motor improvements to increase the maximum effective engagement range to 90,000 m.
S-300PMU1 (US/NATO codenamed SA-10d `Grumble')
The S-300PMU1 was developed from 1985-89 and was first shown at the 1992 Moscow Air Show. It has previously been accepted for operational service in 1992. It differs from the earlier system in having more modern technology integrated into its various elements and by a major update of the software used in the high-speed computers.
S-300PMU-2 Favorit (believed to be NATO/US designation SA-10e `Grumble')
A further modification of the S-300 system has been revealed at the 1997 MAKS air show in Zhukovsky. The S-300PMU-2 Favorit uses an improved missile round, the 48N6E2 with increased ballistic target interception capability and a maximum engagement range of 200,000 m. The warhead weighs 180 kg with each fragment produced having 40 kJ of destructive energy. The missile is optimised for intercepting tactical and ballistic missiles with a radar cross section of approximately 0.002 m2. Existing 48N6E missiles can be used. System tests were successfully conducted in 1995 against `Scud' type targets. The PMU-2 uses the 83M6E2 command and control system and the 96L6E 3D radar command post system.
Length: 7 m
Diameter: 0.45 m
Wing span: 1 m
Launch weight: 1,480 kg
Propulsion: solid fuel rocket motor
Warhead: 133 kg HE fragmentation with proximity and contact fuzes
Max speed: M6
Max effective range:
(target altitude 2,000 m plus) 47,000 m
(target altitude 25 m and below) 25,000 m
Min effective range: n/avail
Max effective altitude: 30,000 m
Min effective altitude: 25 m
Max target speed: 1,167 m/s
Rate of fire: 1 missile/3 s
Provisional 9P85S TEL
Chassis: MAZ-543 (8 x
Combat weight: 42,150 kg
Length: 9.4 m
Width: 3.1 m
Height: 3.7 m
(road) 60 km/h
(road) 650 km
Engine: D12A-525 V-12 water-cooled diesel developing 525 hp at 2,100 rpm
Unit of fire: 4 x SA-10 missiles